Changes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plasma and circulating cells of normal subjects, after prolonged administration of 20:5 (EPA) and 22:6 (DHA) ethyl esters and prolonged washout.

Marangoni F, Angeli MT, Colli S, Eligini S, Tremoli E, Sirtori CR, Galli C.
Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy.

Eight normal volunteers (four men and four women) were treated with 3 x 1 g capsules of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters for a period of 18 weeks, followed by a 24 week washout. Fatty acids of plasma, platelets, monocytes and red blood cells were analyzed at 0, 6, 12 and 18 weeks of treatment and at 4, 14 and 24 weeks of washout. During treatment, accumulation of EPA in plasma and cells was almost maximal at 6 weeks, whereas that of DHA reached a peak at 18 weeks. Arachidonic acid declined somewhat at 12 weeks in plasma and more markedly at 18 weeks in red blood cells and monocytes. During washout, EPA returned rapidly toward pretreatment values in all compartments, but it remained significantly higher in plasma and platelets at the end of washout. DHA declined more slowly, maintaining higher than basal values in plasma and platelets and lower than basal in red blood cells, at the end of washout. Rebound increments of AA occurred in plasma. Finally, the plasma levels of AA, but not those of the n-3 fatty acids, were more markedly modified in males than in females. The presented results suggest interactions between circulating fatty acids in the different compartment after n-3 FA administration, and indicate that very long washouts are necessary for a complete recovery from the induced fatty acid modifications.